The
carbon map
Making sense of climate change responsibility and vulnerability

Data sources, notes and explanation

See below for details of the underlying datasets used in the map. You can download all the data – complete with notes on where and how specific datasets have been gap-filled using estimates – in the following two CSV files. Right-click the links, download the files and open them in your text or spreadsheet editor of choice.

Map data

Shading data

Area map

Description: Land area (sq. km)

Definition: Land area is a country’s total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.

World Bank indicator code: AG.LND.TOTL.K2

Notes: Greenland data substituted with figure from data.un.org so that it includes the area under the Greenland Ice Sheet.

Population map

Description: Population, total

Definition: Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates.

Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

World Bank indicator code: SP.POP.TOTL

Notes: Data for 2010.

Wealth map

Description: Total GDP (PPP, current international $)

Definition: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.

Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.

World Bank indicator code: NY.GDP.MKTP.PP.CD

Notes: Most data for 2010, but with some infilling of blanks from 2009.

Extraction map

Description: Potential CO2 emissions from extracted fossil fuels

Definition: Potential CO2 emissions from annual fossil fuels extraction.

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011, converted to CO2 by Duncan Clark, using the following conversion factors: CO2 figures are based on the following conversion factors: oil, 3.07 tonnes CO2 per tonne; gas, 2.35 tonnes CO2 per tonne of oil equivalent; coal, 3.96 tonnes per tonne of oil equivalent.

Notes: Data for 2010 for significant extractor countries. Data from non-significant extractors have been estimated by diving the remainder for each continent or region between the remaining countries in proportion to their land area.

Emissions map

Description: National CO2 emissions, 2010

Definition: Total emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel burning and cement production in each nation.

Source: Glen Peters et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 2–4 (2012) doi:10.1038/nclimate1332.

Notes: This dataset was updated in March 2010 by Glen Peters. Missing data for countries with low levels of emissions have been estimated by Duncan Clark by distributing unallocated emissions between countries in proportion to their national GDP (PPP, 2010).

Consumption map

Description: Carbon footprint of all goods and services consumed, 2010

Definition: Total emissions of CO2 (from fossil fuel burning and cement production) released in the provision of goods and services consumed in each nation. This is calculated by subtracted the estimated carbon footprint of exports from each nation and adding the estimated carbon footprint of imports.

Source: Glen Peters et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 2–4 (2012) doi:10.1038/nclimate1332.

Notes: This dataset was updated in March 2010 by Glen Peters. Missing data for countries with small footprints have been estimated by Duncan Clark by distributing unallocated emissions between countries in proportion to their national GDP (PPP, 2010).

Historical map

Description: Cumulative CO2 emissions from energy use

Definition: Total emissions of carbon dioxide from energy provision, 1850–2008.

Source: Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 9.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2012) (free registration required).

Reserves map

Description: Potential CO2 emissions from fossil fuel reserves

Definition: This dataset estimates how much CO2 would be released if the fossil fuel reserves for each country were extracted and burned. "Reserves" refers to proven oil, coal and gas reserves that could be extracted economically in current conditions.

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011, converted to CO2 by Duncan Clark using the standard BP conversion factors: CO2 figures are based on the following conversion factors: oil, 3.07 tonnes CO2 per tonne; gas, 2.35 tonnes CO2 per tonne of oil equivalent; coal, 3.96 tonnes per tonne of oil equivalent.

Notes: Data for reserves as of 2010 for countries listed by BP. Data from other countries have been estimated by diving the remainder for each continent or region between the remaining countries in proportion to their land area.

People at risk map

Description: People exposed to droughts, floods and extreme temperatures in 2010

Definition: A drought is an extended period of time characterized by a deficiency in a region’s water supply that is the result of constantly below average precipitation. A drought can lead to losses to agriculture, affect inland navigation and hydropower plants, and cause a lack of drinking water and famine. A flood is a significant rise of water level in a stream, lake, reservoir or coastal region. Extreme temperature events are either cold waves or heat waves. A cold wave can be both a prolonged period of excessively cold weather and the sudden invasion of very cold air over a large area. Along with frost it can cause damage to agriculture, infrastructure, and property. A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessively hot and sometimes also humid weather relative to normal climate patterns of a certain region. Population affected is the number of people injured, left homeless or requiring immediate assistance during a period of emergency resulting from a natural disaster; it can also include displaced or evacuated people.

Source: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database: www.emdat.be, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium), World Bank.

World Bank indicator code: EN.CLC.MDAT.ZS * population

Notes: Original dataset was % of population exposed in the period 1990–2009. This has been multiplied by the 2010 population to give an estimate of the people currently exposed.

Sea level map

Description: Population living less than 5m above sea level

Definition: Population below 5m is the total population living in areas where the elevation is 5 meters or less.

Source: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Place II dataset.

World Bank indicator code: EN.POP.EL5M.ZS * population

Notes: Original dataset was % of population. This has been multiplied by the 2010 population to give an estimate of the total population currently living below 5m.

Poverty map

Description: Population living below $1.25 a day

Definition: Population below $1.25 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $1.25 a day at 2005 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).

World Bank indicator code: SI.POV.DDAY * population

Notes: Calculated by multiplying the 2010 population total by the % of population living on less than $1.25 in the most recent year for which data is available.

Emissions change shading

Description: Change in CO2 emissions, 1990–2008

Definition: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Data are in million metric tons.

Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.

World Bank indicator code: EN.ATM.CO2E.KT

Notes: Data for some unavailable countries added in based on estimate from Peters et al (see Consumption source above).

Emissions per person shading

Description: CO2 emissions per capita, 2008

Definition: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita are carbon dioxide emissions divided by midyear population.

Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States, and World Bank and United Nations population data.

World Bank indicator code: EN.ATM.CO2E.PC

GDP per person shading

Description: GDP per capita, 2010

Definition: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser’s prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.

Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.

World Bank indicator code: NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD

Notes: Data from 2010 with limited gap-filling from 2009.

Population growth shading

Description: GDP per capita, 2010

Definition: Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship - except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin.

Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

World Bank indicator code: SP.POP.GROW

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